Identification - The Australian Cockroach has yellow markings on the thorax and streaks on the base of its wings. This separates this species from the similar American Cockroach.
The Australian cockroach averages around 30mm to 35mm in size. Their antennae are slightly larger than their body size. Their heads are protected under the pronotum. Despite their tough body, the Australian cockroach is quite flexible and able to bend which is one contributing factor to allow it to fit through small spaces.
It takes approximately one year from an egg to an adult cockroach. Female cockroaches lay eggs in an ootheca (egg sac). There are approximately 24 eggs per ootheca, and about three-quarters of the eggs hatch.
Habitat - Although named the Australian Cockroach, this species actually originated in Asia. This particular species of cockroach is found worldwide.
The Australian cockroaches prefer warmer climates, and usually tend to stay outdoors. In cooler climates or during winter months, they may seek shelter indoors, in roofs, wall cavities and sub floors.
Diet - The Australian Cockroach feeds on just about anything, however they reportedly feed on plants more than other cockroach species.
Identification - Adult American cockroaches are reddish-brown to dark brown (except for a tan or light yellow band around the shield behind the head), about 37mmto 50mm long, and have wings capable of flight. Males and females are about the same size. The wings are about the same length as the body (abdomen) in the females and longer in the males, extending slightly beyond the abdomen. Females have a broader abdomen, while the males have both cerci (pair of appendages at the end of the abdomen) and styli (short, slender, finger like process). Nymphs are wingless, uniformly brown coloured, and run very fast. Egg capsules are mahogany brown and about 8mm- long.
Life Cycle and Habits - American cockroach females deposit their eggs in bean-shaped cases (oothecae) in sheltered areas on or near the floor, usually close to a food source. Egg capsules protrude from the body for a few hours to four days. One egg capsule is formed each week until 6 to 14 have been produced. Each case contains up to 16 white or yellowish-white eggs. Eggs hatch between 5 to 7 weeks, first into whitish-brown nymphs, later turning more reddish-brown. Development to adult averages about 15 months, varying between 9.5 to 20 months. Adults live almost 15 months. These roaches are found in dark, moist areas, especially in sewers, steam heat tunnels, boiler rooms, around bathtubs and clothes hampers, and around plumbing, feeding on decaying organic matter. Many are attracted to fermenting liquid (bread saturated with beer). Feeding can occur on starch sizing in books, papers, etc. Cockroaches hide during the day in sheltered, dark places and forage for food at night, often running rapidly when disturbed. American cockroaches are one of the least common roaches found in homes and, though winged, seldom fly when disturbed. Instead, there is more of a gliding flight. Adults can live at least two to three months without food, a month without water, and can easily survive outdoor freezing temperatures. Some have been found in alleyways and yards in summer months and around street lights
Smoky Brown Cockroaches
Identification - The Smoky brown cockroaches are dark brown to mahogany in colour and up to 12.5 mm long. Adults are just over 25mm in length. Both males and females are good fliers and attracted to lights.
Habit - The Smokey brown cockroach prefers to live in, moist, dark, and warm areas. These areas can be tree holes, loose mulch, vines, ivy, and woodpiles or roof space and wall cavities with moisture problems. This cockroach loses moisture more often than other species so it needs to stay somewhere with moisture readily available.
Identification - German cockroaches Adults are Up to 1.5 cm long light brown in colour and nymphs are 0.2 to 1cm long
Habit - German cockroaches can be found anywhere in the home but is probably most common in the kitchen, frequently inside cupboards, drawers and electrical appliances, Hot water Heaters, Dish washers, food-storage areas and restaurants. They are also widespread in the galleys and storerooms of ships and jetliners. In warmer climates they are found outdoors, living under houses, in trash piles.
Diet - The German Cockroach eats almost anything but prefers starchy foods like potatoes, rice and cereal but have been known to live off cardboard and paper
Reproduction - The Female German cockroach can carry an egg capsule containing 30-48 eggs at the end of their abdomen. When the eggs are close to hatching, the females attach the capsule in a dark corner where the young can emerge safely. One female German cockroach can produce up to 20,000 young annually. Lindar Pest Control is proud to say that we have a 100% success record when treating German cockroaches and endeavour to keep it.
Identification - The body of an adult oriental cockroach is about 1 inch in length. Dark brown to black in colour.
Habit - Most often found in dark basements or cellars, but can also climb, sewer and water pipes to the upper floors in high-rise buildings. Oriental cockroaches prefer to feed on starchy foods.
Reproduction - The female lives up to 2 years; deposits up to 18 egg-sacs in lifetime; each egg sac contains 16 eggs; incubation period is 1 to 2 months; development period is 12 months, undergoing 7 moults
Brown Banded Cockroaches
Identification - The Brown banded cockroaches are 9mm to 14 mm long. Wings have two brownish-yellow bands. The forewings of males completely cover the body, while those of the female seldom reach the tip of the abdomen. The forewings are reddish brown, with pale areas at the base and in the middle. The body colour varies: the dark midsection often has a pale area in the centre.
Habit - The Brown Banded Cockroach are nocturnal and also can fly. They may be found throughout any structure, but prefer dry, warm areas, high locations and inside furniture.
Diet - The Brown banded cockroach feed on all kinds of foods in kitchens. They often eat bookbindings, starch, wallpaper paste, and the adhesives on the backs of stamps and gummed labels.
Reproduction - The Female cockroach carries egg capsule for 24 to 36 hours, then attaches it underneath or on the side of a protected surface. One Capsule contains an average of 18 eggs. Nymphs reach maturity in an average of 161 days. Adults live up to 10 months.
Sydney Funnel- Web Spider (Deadly & Dangerous)
The Sydney Funnel-webs spider is probably the most notorious of all spiders with a fearsome reputation. Most of this is deserved, but some is exaggerated. It is true that, if threatened, Sydney Funnel-webs spider shows aggressive behaviour, rearing and displaying their impressive fangs. It is also true that male funnel-web spiders have a habit of wandering into backyards and falling into suburban swimming pools, where they can survive many hours Funnel-web spiders sometimes enter and become trapped in houses. Again, it is true that Sydney Funnel-webs have one of the most toxic venoms (to humans) of any spider. However, it is not true that all funnel-web bites are life-threatening-the venom of juvenile and female Sydney Funnel-web Spiders is much less toxic. A number of other spiders are often mistaken as funnel-webs, including mouse spiders, trapdoor spiders and even Black House Spiders.
Distribution - The Sydney funnel web spider is found South of the Hunter River to the Illawarra region, west to the Blue Mountains, and along the coast line New South Wales
Habit - The Funnel-web spider burrow's in sheltered sites under logs and rocks where they can find a cool and humid climate. Funnel-webs rush out of their burrow when potential prey, such as beetles, cockroaches, small lizards or snails, walk across silken trip-lines that the spider has placed around the outside of its burrow. They then return to their burrow to eat their meal. Found nesting in holes in the ground in urban areas around trees, sub floors, forests and woodlands.
Identification - The Sydney Funnel-webs are shiny, dark brown to black spiders with large fangs and w finger-like spinnerets (silk-spinning organs) at the end of their abdomen. Males have a large mating spur projecting from the middle of their second pair of legs. The male funnel web spider leaves it's burrow and wanders around in summer and autumn to find females and mate they are about 1.5-3.5 cm body length
Bite - Funnel-web bites are dangerous and first aid should be given immediately using the pressure bandage/immobilization technique (as for snake bite) and the victim taken to hospital and given antivenom if necessary.
Redback Spider (Deadly & Dangerous)
The Red-back Spider is found all over Australia in open bush land, but is especially common in urban areas. Red-back spiders prefer inhabited areas, and because it often builds its web in places like bins, sheds or outhouses, the Red-back Spider frequently comes into contact with humans, especially in the summer months. The Red-back spider although not aggressive, over 600 bites occur each year in Australia-often when the spider is accidentally pressed against with the hand when cleaning, or lifting material containing a web. Bites are always from females as the male is much smaller and has jaws that are unable to penetrate human skin. The venom is highly toxic to humans but effective anti venom is widely available and no deaths have occurred since its development. As a member of the 'widow' group of spiders. Red-back Spider is also famous for the male's suicidal tendencies. After mating, he spins around so that his abdomen is against the female's fangs, effectively sacrificing himself to her. She mauls him, usually fatally, and eats him. If he escapes, he does so severely injured and returns to mate again-this time to certain death.
Habit - Red-backs spiders are mainly found nesting low to the ground in urban areas around pot plant, rocks, stairs, fence lines, forests and woodlands. Feeding on insects, small lizards and even small mice have been known to fall victim to them.
Identification - Female Red-back spiders are 1.0cm to 1.4 cm body length, dark black with red stripe on abdomen. Male red-back spiders are 2-3 mm body length brown with white or red markings
Bite - Red-back bites can cause serious illness and have been fatal as the venom attacks the central nervous system of the victim. Symptoms include severe pain, sweating, muscular weakness, and nausea and vomiting, However medical attention should be sought as soon as possible.
White Tailed Spider (Deadly & Dangerous)
White-tailed spiders are found all over Australia. It ranges from northern Queensland to Victoria. They should be treated carefully although they are not aggressive
Distribution - The White tailed spider is found on the Eastern side of Australia.
Habitat - The White-tailed Spider is usually found under rocks and bark and logs, where it is an active, nocturnal hunter. It builds no web of its own but will approach those made by other spiders, feeling at the outside of the web. This web disturbance lures the prey spider from its retreat onto the web, where it is stalked and bitten by the White tailed spider. The White-tailed Spider is often seen in older houses and sheds, whose cracks and crevices, as well as the plentiful supply of insects and spiders, make them good places to hunting.
Identification - White-tailed spiders are easily recognized by their long black or greyish body and white marking at the tip of the abdomen they are about 1.0cm-1.5 cm in length.
Bites - White-tailed Spider bites are moderately common. Bites may cause mild-initial pain followed bye an itchy lump at the wound site. Less commonly, swelling and skin discolouration of the bitten area may occur, Leading to local ulceration. If bitten seek medical advise (along with specimen of spider if possible) for identification.
Mouse Spider Toxic (Poisonous)- Painful Bite
Identification - Mouse spiders are a kind of trapdoor spider and are widespread across mainland Australia. They can be found in both coastal and dryer habitats but do not occur in tropical rainforests. Female mouse spiders grow to 3 centimetres long and are black or dark brown in colour. They are very stocky with short, thick legs. Males are smaller, growing to approximately two centimetres long. They have longer legs and long palps (an elongated, often segmented appendage usually found near the mouth in invertebrates used for sensation, locomotion, and feeding), which look like an extra pair of legs. Both sexes have enormous fangs and fang-bases. A diagnostic structural feature is the very steep slope on the back of the head area. Male redheaded mouse spiders have a red head and jaws with a blue abdomen, while male eastern mouse spider, and northern mouse spiders, have a whitish patch on the top of the abdomen. Named by early European settlers because of the size and shape of their burrow. The Eastern Mouse Spider is often mistaken for the Sydney Funnel-web Spider. There are a number of similarities, notably the black and shiny appearance of the females and their large jaws, and the males' habit of wandering around on cool damp nights looking for females. The differences are that the Eastern Mouse Spider has even larger fangs than the Sydney Funnel-web, a bulbous head and eyes that are wide apart. It also bites in a diagonal downward motion rather than vertically downwards. Burrows of the Eastern Mouse Spider have a trapdoor, are usually in damp areas and are used as protection against predators. Body length 1.0-3.0 cm
Distribution - Southeast Australia.
Habitat - Forests and woodlands
Status - Fairly common but not often seen.
Black House Spider Toxic (Poisonous)- Painful Bite
Habitat & Distribution - Black and Grey House Spiders are widely distributed in southern and eastern Australia. Their webs form untidy, lacy silk sheets with funnel-like entrances. Black House Spiders are found on tree trunks, logs, rock walls and buildings (in window frames, wall crevices, etc).
Identification - The Black House Spider is a dark robust spider, with the female (up to 18mm) being larger than the male (about 9mm). The carapace and legs are dark brown to black, and the abdomen is charcoal grey with a dorsal pattern of white markings (sometimes indistinct) (Grey House Spider) is a slightly smaller (14mm) species with a greyish carapace and grey-brown banded legs. The webs of Black House Spiders have a 'funnel-like' shape, which is sometimes misunderstood as a Funnel-web Spider web. However, the two spiders are not at all similar in appearance, size or life history.
Wolf Spider Toxic (Poisonous)- Painful Bite
Wolf spiders are robust, agile, fast-moving ground hunters that chase down or ambush prey. They have large eyes with which they locate their prey. Their characteristic eye formation is four large eyes arranged in a square on top of the head with four smaller eyes in a row at the front. There are over 130 species of wolf spiders in Australia. The best time to see wolf spiders is at night when they are searching for prey. Use a torch to spot the greenish yellow reflection from their large eyes.
Habitat - Most wolf spiders live in leaf litter or in burrows in fairly open ground. Burrows of the Grey Wolf Spider have a circular trap door that is often left open when the spider is out hunting. Female wolf spiders carry their egg sac behind them, attached to the spinnerets on the abdomen. When the eggs hatch, the spider lings hitch a ride on the mother's back, clinging onto special knobbed hairs
Identification - The Garden Wolf Spider is large and strongly patterned in grey, brown and white with a black underside. It is about 1.5cm-2.2 cm in body length.
Trap-Door Spider The "Low Risk" Spiders
Unlike funnel-web spider burrows, the burrows of the Sydney Brown Trapdoor Spider have no silk trip-lines extending out from the rim and they are found in more open ground. . It is not dangerously venomous and looks quite different from the shiny brown-black appearance of funnel-web spiders, with which, being similar in size, it is often confused. Male trapdoor spiders have a small mating spur halfway along the first pair of legs, another difference from funnel-webs. The Sydney Brown Trapdoor Spider can occur in large numbers in urban and bushland areas
Distribution - The trap door spider is found around Sydney
Habitat - The Sydney Brown Trapdoor Spider lives in silk-lined burrows which are found in lawns, gardens and bush land through out Sydney, trapping ground-dwelling insects and other arthropods such as beetles, cockroaches, crickets, slaters, spiders and even moths that stray too near the burrow entrance.
Identification - The spider's brown body has a dusty look about it, with golden brown hairs and greyish bars on the abdomen1.5-3.0 cm body length.
Garden ORB-Weaving Spider The "Low Risk" Spiders
The garden orb-weavers are a common spider found in garden through out Sydney they are a large group of spiders with over 100 known species in Australia. When food is plentiful these spiders will release large prey rather than risk a fight that may damage their web.
Habitat - The Garden Orb Weaving Spider makes a wheel-shaped web with openings between trees and shrubs where insects are likely to fly. When an insect flies into the web, the spider senses the vibration, rushes out from the web centre and rapidly wraps the victim in silk, rotating it with its shorter middle legs. When the prey is secure the orb-weaver administers a bite and sits back to allow the deadly venom to do its job. Once all movement has stopped, the spider takes the meal to the centre of the web and eats it or hangs it up for later.
Identification - The Garden Orb-weaver's are reddish brown or a grey spider and about 1.0-2.5 cm body length
Bite - Garden orb weaving spiders are reluctant to bite, if they do, symptoms may include mild pain with possible numbness and swelling. Occasionally nausea and dizziness may be associated.
Saint Andrews Cross Spider
The St Andrew's spider is a fairly common spider that Is found in gardens, the St Andrew's Cross Spider can be recognized by its distinctive web with zigzag bands of silk woven into the shape of a diagonal cross. These zigzag bands of silk strengthen the web and also reflect ultraviolet light, which attracts insects.
Distribution - The St Andrew's cross spider is found Throughout eastern Australia.
Habitat - The St Andrew's spider web can be found built in shrubs or long grass where it can catch moths, grasshoppers and a range of small insects.
Appearance - Female's are a silvery with yellow, red and black band's across the abdomen and can be up to 1.5 cm in body length, male 5 mm. Males are much smaller in size and are reddish brown in colour.
Bite - Like all orb-weavers, St Andrew's Cross Spiders are reluctant to bite. If they do, symptoms may include mild pain with possible numbness and swelling and occasionally nausea and dizziness. Seek medical attention if symptoms persist.
For most people ants only become a problem when they enter buildings in search of food and water or when they build their nests in buildings or gardens. Ants can be attracted to a wide range of foods with different species having preferences for sugars, proteins, fats and oils. During extended dry periods they will also search for water. In many species once an individual has found a desirable item it will return to the nest and recruit nest mates to help gather the food. This can result in large numbers of ants rapidly appearing around an item, sometimes with long trails of ants between the nest and the item of interest. Some ants will build nests in walls and foundations, indoor potted plants, and small spaces between fittings and walls. In nearly all cases, the ants are using pre-existing spaces or taking advantage of existing deterioration. Ants generally do not cause structural damage to buildings. A few species will occasionally attack electrical wiring for unknown reasons, and in these situations extensive damage can occur.
Outdoors, nesting can result in soil being deposited on gardens, around pots and between tiles and brickwork resulting in a mess but little damage. However, some species can form nests with large numbers of chambers just below the soil surface causing the soil to become soft and uneven. Undermining of retaining walls and interference with drainage systems is also possible. Some seed harvesting ant species can be a nuisance when attempting to grow plants by direct sowing of seeds.
Ants are sometimes confused with the unrelated Termites (Order Isoptera) partly because the latter have the common name 'white ants'. Termites have the ability to digest cellulose and will eat wood, which sometimes results in damage to wooden structures Ants that are found in wood do not cause damage but are using pre-existing cavities.
Bull ants have a fearsome reputation, and deservedly so. They are large with long, straight, powerful jaws and a potent venom-loaded sting. They attack intruders of any size that come too close to their nest. Bull ants also have well developed vision and will follow or even chase an intruder a good distance from the nest. Usually the sight of large aggressive ants streaming out of the nest is enough to prompt a hasty retreat. If not, the Bull ants deliver painful stings by gripping the intruder with their mandibles (jaws), curling their abdomen to reveal the sting and injecting the victim with venom. Often multiple stings are delivered.
Many species of bull ants have bright red or orange colours on the head or abdomen. They collect nectar and other plant juices, as well as animal prey, which are carried back to the nest. Nests are usually underground and often have hidden or small entrances. The nests can extend several meters below the ground.
There are about 90 species of bull ants in Australia with diverse behaviours and life cycles. Some of the smaller species are known as jumper ants after their habit of aggressively jumping toward intruders. Several species have no colony workers. Instead, a raiding queen invades the nest of another species, kills the resident queen and takes over the colony. Nine bull ant species have been recorded in Sydney, but there may be more.
Distribution - Bull Ants are found in Sydney and through out Australia
Habitat - Bull Ants are found in Urban areas, forests and woodland, Mainly found in areas were the soil is dry. Bull Ants can deliver a very painful sting and can be very aggressive, medical attention should be sought.
Size - Bull Ant workers 8-10 mm long.
The European Wasp was first found in Australia in 1959 in Tasmania. By 1978 they were also known in Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales and Western Australia area. As the name suggests, the wasp originated in Europe and is also a native of North Africa and Asia. European wasp nests, and are now firmly established in the Sydney which are made out of chewed wood fibre, can be found in ceilings, wall cavities, logs, tree trunks and soil. Nests vary dramatically in size from 5cm to 1 meter in diameter; they are grey, usually oval shaped. Unlike bees, European wasps can sting repeatedly and are easily aroused and hostile. They are more aggressive in the warmer months .The sting can cause severe allergic reactions in some people and an asthma condition may develop.
Distribution - The European wasp is found throughout Australia, except in tropical regions.
Habitat - European wasps Colonies are started by a single fertilized queen, which lays an egg in a number of cells in the nest. These hatch into grub-like larvae and are tended by the queen for a number of weeks. They become the first batch of workers that take over nest construction and rearing of the larvae while the queen concentrates on laying eggs. The nest grows throughout the summer until a batch of males and new queens are hatched in the autumn. These mate and fly off to start new nests. In Europe the nest then disintegrates, but in Australia's warm climate the nest can continue to grow over a number of seasons. This results in giant and potentially dangerous nests of over 100,000 wasps. Urban areas, woodlands and forest.
Identification - The worker European wasp is about the same size as a Honeybee but half black, arrow shaped markings and bands on his stocky, relatively smooth, lemon to yellow body. The European wasp also has antennae's about half the length of its body.1.2-1.6 cm
Most of Australia' and Sydney wasps live solitary lives, hunting and feeding alone. A few wasps, such as the paper wasps, are social and live in colonies. The nest is a series of cells shaped like an inverted cone made from saliva mixed with wood fragments. When it dries the mixture is quite paper-like, and gives these wasps their name. Alone the female paper wasps starts nest construction and lays eggs into the first cells. When they hatch she feeds the larvae on partially chewed-up caterpillars. These larvae grow into female wasps that help with nest construction and lay their own eggs. They may compete to become the dominant egg-layer of the colony by eating each other's eggs. In the autumn, un fertilized eggs hatch into male wasps that die soon after mating with females, which fly off to start new nests.
Identification - Paper wasp's are about 1cm to 2.5 cm long, slender, narrow waist with long legs and reddish-orange to dark brown or black in colour. There have black and yellow markings on the abdomen (rear body part).
Habit - Paper wasps are social insects, living in colonies containing workers, queens and males. Colonies are annual with only inseminated queens over wintering. Queens emerge during the warm days of early October to early May. They select a nest site and build a small paper nest in which the eggs are laid; one egg is laid in each
Sting - Paper wasps can deliver painful stings, but are not as aggressive as European Wasps. Paper wasps normally attack humans if their nests are disturbed, an ice pack may be used to relieve the pain of the sting. If there is evidence of an allergic reaction, medical attention should be sought
Cicada Killer Wasps
Cicada-killer wasps are sometimes mistaken for hornets because of their impressive size. However, there are no hornets in Australia
Identification - The Cicada-Killer wasp looks like a wasp but is about 4cm long
Habit - The cicada-Killer wasp is usually found in urban areas, forests and woodlands
Diet - Cicada-killer wasps hunt in the trees for cicadas, which feed on sap using their piercing mouth- parts. Sometimes the cicada-killer wasp returns to the exact spot where it captured its prey to feed on the sap that now leaks from the hole made in the tree by the cicada
Reproduction - Cicada-killer wasp's hunt in the trees for cicadas, once found, the wasp quickly stings and paralyses its victim. The heavy burden is then flown or dragged to the wasp's underground nest where an egg is laid on it. Having provided its unhatched larva with fresh food, the wasp then seals the nest
Sting - Cicada-killer wasps are large and have a potentially painful sting. However they are not aggressive and are very unlikely use their venom on humans unless extremely provoked. The best advice is to leave them alone. An ice pack may be used to relieve the pain of the sting. If there is evidence of an allergic reaction, medical attention should be sought
Mud Dauber Wasp
The Mud-dauber Wasp is one of the more commonly encountered wasps in Sydney. This wasp is named for the nests that are made from mud collected by the females. Mud is rolled into a ball, carried to the nest and moulded into place with the wasp's mandibles.
It is usually seen feeding on flower nectar but occasionally found flying with a spider held in its jaws, destined to be fed to larvae in a mud nest. The adults are often seen collecting water and mud for their nests, which they commonly construct in protected areas of houses, buildings and rock overhangs
Identification - The mud-dauber wasp mainly black with a slender body Up to 3 cm in length
Habitat - After the mud-dauber wasp completes the mud nest the female then captures several insects or spiders to fill the cells. Prey are stung and paralysed before being placed in the nest. A single egg is deposited on the prey within each cell, and the cell sealed with mud. After the wasp has finished a series of cells, she departs and does not return. The larvae that hatch from the eggs feed on the prey items left by the adult wasp. New adult wasps emerge to start the process over again Likes to nest in Urban areas, forests and woodlands, the mud nests are found around sheltered areas, around window and door frames etc.
Bite - The Mud-dauber Wasp can deliver painful stings, but attacks are rare. An ice pack may be used to relieve the pain of the sting. If there is evidence of an allergic reaction, medical attention should be sought.
Bed bugs probably got the name with the close association with human beds where there often found hiding during the daylight hours. At night bed- bugs come out to feed and are attracted to body heat. The bite of a bed bug is normally painless; however, about 80% of the population will develop an allergic type reaction to the bite. The bed bug bit may cause general swelling that extends beyond the area of the bite leaving no red spot.
Identification - Bed bugs are flat, reddish-brown, and are some- what oval and flat and about 5-6mm long or the size of an apple seed. Swollen and reddish after a blood meal, and may have a creamy colour before a feed.
Habit - Bed bugs are often found hiding in Cracks and crevices including mattress seams, sheets, furniture, behind baseboards, electrical outlet plates and picture frames. Often found in hotels, where they can travel from room to room and in visitors' luggage.
Diet - Bed bugs preferably feed on human blood but they can also make use of other hosts such as bats, poultry and other birds.
Reproduction - Female bed bugs deposit their eggs into cracks and crevices or on rough surfaces. The female bed bug lay one to five eggs a day, and may lay 200 to 500 eggs in her lifetime. Under ideal conditions, the egg to adult cycle takes about 21 days Nymphs go through 5 moults and require a blood feed before each moult. In the absence of blood meals, nymph have been known to survive for 2 years. An adult Bed bug under normal room temperatures and with an adequate food supply, can live
Bird Lice (Mites)
Bird Lice (Mites) are minute creatures 0.1-2.mm in length, which have unsegmented body and 4 pairs of legs in adult stage.
The development of mite's involves- egg---larval----nymphal----adult stage. The life cycle usually occupies 2-4 weeks, but this depends On the species and weather conditions. Mites are annoying they attack a various foodstuffs, including humans and pets.
BIRD MITES- May be brought in or occur inside the house where birds are kept. Just as common, they are transported by birds occupying the roof void for nesting quarters. The problem is noticed when the chicks are old enough to vacate the nest, leaving hungry mites with no food source.
Then the mites venture down to human living areas in search of food, biting humans and causing Severe itching.
Mouse / House Mouse
Identification - Mice or House mice are Small and slender, 75mm to 100mm long, with large ears, small eyes and pointed nose. Light brown or light grey. Droppings are round-shaped.
Habit - Mice tend to nests within structures and burrows. Establish a "territory" near food sources that are generally 10 to 30 feet from nest. Inquisitive, but very wary, and are Excellent climbers.
Diet - Mice have a diet of a variety of foods, such as seeds, grains and nuts requiring only about 1/10 ounce of food each day, and can live without access to fresh water as long as their solid food is fairly moist
Reproduction - The House Mouse has a very prolific reproductive system breeding year round and having as many as eight litters annually. Female mice can start having their litters at the age of one and a half to two months. Life expectancy for a wild mouse is no more than one year
Other - Mice can carry a wide variety of diseases transmissible to humans. A very real problem with the infestation of mice is the Hantavirus that has been a threat in the arid southwest part of the country. Another major concern is salmonellas, which is transmitted by mice and is a concern in food storage and preparation area.
Wild Norway Rat
The Norway rat is the largest of the common rodents in Australia, with its distribution restricted to human coastal settlements. The Norway Rat is often found in warehouses, shipping ports, large urban settlements and more than any other rodent species it has adapted to utilize human foods and wastes
Identification - The Norway rat is a dark Brown or Grey, heavy-bodied, 180mm-255mm long, with small eyes and ears and blunt nose. Tail is shorter than head and body and is thick. Its fur is shaggy. The Norway rat droppings are capsule-shaped. Occasionally, The Norway rat some times might be albino and pure black in colour.
Habit - The Norway rat is a dark Brown or Grey, heavy-bodied, 180mm-255mm long, with small eyes and ears and blunt nose. Tail is shorter than head and body and is thick. Its fur is shaggy. The Norway rat droppings are capsule-shaped. Occasionally, The Norway rat some times might be albino and pure black in colour.
Diet - The Norway rat is Omnivorous, but prefers meats and cannot survive long without water
Reproduction - The Norway rat reaches sexual maturity in two months and can breed any month of the year. Litter may number from eight to twelve. Females can have four to seven litters per year.
The Roof rat is one of the three introduced common rodents in Australia and is believed to have arrived with the first fleet. The Roof rat spices is now spread over very much of the coast line, inhabiting urban, agricultural, commercial and industrial environments
Appearance - Roof rats are variable and range from Black or brown, head and body is 165mm-205mm long, with a long tail 185mm -245mm, large ears and eyes, and a pointed nose. Body is smaller and sleeker than Norway rat. Fur is smooth
Habit - The roof rat is a very agile climber nests inside roofs and under buildings, or in piles of rubbish or wood. Although common above ground, roof rats are exceptional burrowers and can create extensive shallow burrow systems around wall orchards, and riverbanks. Often can be found in the upper parts of structures, and can squeeze through openings only 12.5mm wide.
Diet - The Roof rat is Omnivorous, but shows a preference for grains, fruits, nuts and vegetables.
Reproduction - Roof rats are said known to be sexually mature at four months, producing four to six litters per year that consist of four to eight young each and lives up to one year
Other - Roof rats are a Carrier of many serious diseases including salmonella and leptospirosis and are notorious for spreading the flea responsible for carrying the bubonic plague, killing thousands throughout Europe in 1665.
Sydney Blow Fly
The Blow Fly, are a large family of flies known for there infesting animal carcasses. Blowflies are found worldwide; found nearly every place inhabited by people. The name blowfly comes from the bloated condition of the rotting animal carcasses that their larvae, known as maggots, infest. The most frequent species found under these conditions is the common blowfly. Adult blow- flies feed primarily on flower nectar, plant sap, and other sugary materials
Distribution - The Blow fly is found in Sydney and throughout Australia.
Habitat - Adult Blow Flies are attracted to meat or living flesh and, they lay maggots rather than eggs. This means their full life cycle can sometimes be completed within seven days. Found in Urban areas, semi-arid environments, forests and woodlands.
Appearance - Blow- flies are slightly larger than true - flies, and the bodies of many are metallic blue or green in colour. Blow flies range in length from 7 to 16 mm they have large bodies and wide heads
Appearance - Adult fruit flies are about 1cm long, have red eyes and a tan thorax. The abdomen is black on top
Habit - Adult fruit are strong fliers and have been known to travel many kilometres within a 24-hour period. Fruit flies Populations tend to build during the summer months, becoming very abundant at harvest time. Indoors Fruit flies are frequently active at all times of the year. Adult Fruit flies are found flying around drains and moist
Diet - Fruit flies feed on ripened fruit and vegetables. Fermenting products.
Reproduction - Fruit fly Larvae develop in moist areas where organic material and standing water are present. The entire life cycle lasts 25 days or more depending on the environmental conditions and the availability of food.
Appearance - Drain flies in Sydney are about 2mm long with a light grey or tan body and lighter-coloured wings. The body and the wings are covered with long hairs, giving the fly a fuzzy appearance. When Drain flies are at rest, the wings are folded over the body in a characteristic roof-like manner.
Habit - When Drain flies find ways Into homes, adults are mainly found in the bathroom, kitchen or basement walls were there is moisture to help with reproduction. Drain flies are more active at night. Drain flies do not bite but are annoying when there are a lot of them in the same area.
Diet - Drain flies are known to feed on Organic matter and sewage
Reproduction - Drain flies are known to feed on Organic matter and sewage
Fleas are not only a nuisance to humans and their pets but can cause medical problems such as dermatitis, secondary skin irritations and in extreme causes Anaemia. Adult fleas develop inside a papal cocoon and remain in limbo until a blood source is near preferring cats and dogs because of the higher body temperate compared to humans. When fleas bite humans they cause an itchy reaction and sometimes bites may become infected.
Appearance - Adult fleas are about 1.5 to 4.0mm long, brownish or dark reddish-brown, wingless, hard-bodied (difficult to crush between fingers), have three pairs of legs (hind legs enlarged enabling jumping) and are flattened vertically or side to side
Habit - Fleas can be found in your pet's immediate environment especially there favourite resting and sleeping area. Fleas are excellent jumpers, leaping vertically up to 17.5cm and horizontally about 32.5cm.
Diet - Adult fleas cannot survive or lay eggs without a blood meal, but may live from two months to one year without feeding. Flea larvae pass through three larval stages and take a week to several months to develop. Their food consists of digested blood from adult flea faeces, dead skin, hair, feathers, and other organic debris. (Larvae do not suck blood.)
Reproduction - Adults fleas are known to live from 2 months to a year without a blood feed, they also reproduce with amazing speed in one month 10 females in the right conditions can generate a population of over 267,000 of offspring.
Silverfish are active at night and hide during the day. When objects are moved where they are hiding, they dart out and seek new hiding places. The silverfish lives and develops in damp, cool places (prefers 75 to 95 percent relative humidity), often in the basement, bathroom and kitchen. Large numbers may be found in new buildings where the walls are still damp from plaster and green lumber
Identification - The silverfish adult is about 1.5cm long with a uniform silvery or pearl-grey in colour, Silverfish have flat, elongated bodies 8.5mm to 19mm long and broad near the head, tapering toward the rear-somewhat "carrot" shaped. These fragile, wingless insects are covered with scales and have two long, slender antennae at the head and three long, antennae-like appendages at the rear. These three appendages, one directed straight back and the other two curving outward, plus the two antennae, are nearly as long as the body.
Life Cycle and Habits - Silverfish eat a wide variety of foods, including glue, wallpaper paste, bookbinding's, paper, photographs, starch in clothing, cotton, linen, rayon fabrics, wheat flour, cereals, dried meats, leather and even dead insects. Silverfish often live in damp, cool places such as basements and laundry rooms. Sometimes, they are found in a bathtub, sink or washbasin, unable to climb out.
Silverfish females may lay over 100 eggs during a lifetime. Eggs are laid singly or two to three at a time in small groups, hatching in three to six weeks.
Silverfish may reach maturity in three to twenty-four months. These insects normally hitchhike into the home in food, furniture, old books, papers and old starched clothing. Unlike other insects, they continue to moult after becoming adults.
The Australian Carpet Beetle is a native member of a small but significant group of beetles (family Dermestidae) that frequently invade homes and whose larvae feed on carpets and similar fabrics. These beetles are a major pest in museums as they attack dried animal skins. The adult beetles eat flowers and live mostly outdoors. As a result, treatment indoors is ineffective in the long term because the adult beetles easily re-enter and infest buildings. The larvae are small hairy grubs whose hairs break off when handled and can cause allergic reactions in some people. Before we introduced household goods into their diet, carpet beetle larvae naturally fed on spider webs, dried animal skins or other dried protein material.
Distributioon - Throughout Australia.
Habitats - Urban areas, forests and woodlands
Status - Fairly common
Size - 2-3 mm long.
The two possum species the average person is most likely to come into contact with are the Brushtail Possum and Ringtail Possum. They have managed to survive reasonably well in suburbia and can be a common sight in some back yards. Both types of Possum are mainly vegetarians but do like to eat insects and larvae and sometimes nestling birds. They love flower blossoms (a major part of their diet) but can upset gardeners by eating their prized roses, magnolias etc.
Possums nightly romps (and fights) in ceilings and roof tops are another cause of animosity from people.
Possums (all Possums are strictly protected and even live captured animals can only be moved a short distance for release which is unlikely to be effective as they return immediately - they are territorial
Possums are nocturnal marsupials, native to Australia's bush land
Possums are protected animals and thus we are not permitted to harm or kill them. The following procedures are followed when dealing with possums:
Solutions -We send technicians to investigate the noise in the roof, which may well be caused by roof rats, birds or other animals. Once it is established that possums are dwelling in the roof, our technicians set cages for the animal. Cages are checked on a daily basis until the possum is caught. Our technicians then release the possum back into the wild, taking special care not to harm or stress the animal in the process. Once it has been established that there are no more possums in the roof. Although there are many species living in the wild, some species of possums dwell in domestic backyards and local parks. When they wander into roofs and attics, however, they become a noisy and troublesome pest.
Habits - Possums naturally live in cavities of trees. They shelter there during the day, and emerge to feed & explore at night. Possums enter roof voids when their natural nesting sites have been removed, mainly through broken tiles, damaged eaves & displaced ridge capping. When in the roof they make noises at night, urinate & defecate on ceiling plaster, causing stains and odours. Chimneys are also favoured sheltering places.